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Turkey Economy
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $458.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 58.5% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
15.5% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
18% (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
44 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25.3% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
23.79 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 39.7%, industry 22.4%, services 37.9% (3rd quarter, 2001)
Unemployment rate:
10.5% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2003 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $66.79 billion
expenditures: $93.31 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt:
78.7% of GDP (2003)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:
8.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
116.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 79.3%
hydro: 20.4%
other: 0.3% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
112.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
433 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
4.579 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
48,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
619,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
288.4 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
312 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
15.94 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.685 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Agriculture - products:
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Current account balance:
$-6.806 billion (2003)
Exports:
$49.12 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners:
Germany 16.3%, UK 8.6%, US 8%, Italy 7.3%, France 5.7% (2003 est.)
Imports:
$62.43 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Germany 15.3%, Italy 8.3%, Russia 7.3%, France 6%, UK 4.7%, US 4.4%, Switzerland 4.1% (2003 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
$35.55 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
$147.3 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $300 million (2000)
Currency:
Turkish lira (TRL)
Currency code:
TRL
Exchange rates:
Turkish liras per US dollar - NA (2003), 1,507,230 (2002), 1,225,590 (2001), 625,218 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 151,865 (1997)
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